As we studied in our previous blog about the importance of advancement in agriculture technologies. Now, let us talk about the crop production which are found in UP.
UP Crop Production
In India, UP is the top farming state and it is famous for farming activities. The large number of population in the state depends upon agriculture for its livelihood. As high as 65% of the total workforce in the state depends upon agriculture, most of whom are below the poverty line. It contributed about 1/5th of the foodgrain production in Country. The agriculture crops in India are seasonal in nature and highly dependent on these two monsoons.
The main type of crops in UP are Rabi crops, Kharif crops and Zaid crops.
These are the crops which are sown in winter and harvested in the spring season (Sown around mid-November after the monsoon rain are over and harvesting begin in April/May). Wheat, gram, mustard barley, green peas, rapeseed, lentil, oat, vegetables are some examples of Rabi crops.
UP is the largest producer of wheat. It producing around 1/5th of overall wheat production. The districts of India which is producing wheat are Meerut, Aligarh, Agra, Muzaffarnagar, Saharanpur, Bulandshahar, Kanpur, and Mathura. It requires cool climate and medium rainfall. The ideal temperature need for the production of this crop in winter is 10°C to 15°C whereas in summer is 21°C to 26°C. It grows well in Clayey loam soil.
UP accounts 23% for the total production of barley in India. It is mainly grown in Rabi season. The most barley producing districts are Varanasi, Ghazipur, Jaunpur, Pratapgarh, Gorakhpur, Ballia, Prayagraj, Fatehpur, Mirzapur, Agra, Mathura, and Bulandshahr. Barley doesn’t require too much watering. Too much watering can lead to decomposition. The ideal temperature required for its cultivation is 15°C-20°C and requires a moderate amount of rainfall of 25-75 cm.
Banda, Hamirpur, Jhansi, Lalitpur, Jalaun, Mirzapur, Sonibadra, Kanpur, Fatehpur, Sitapur, Barabanki, Prayaqgraj and Agra are the major districts where gram is grown. Hamirpur is the largest producer of gram in the state. Gram is cultivated on sandy loam to clayey loam soils where as in South on Decaan Plateau Central India or Maharashtra, it is raised on black cotton soils. Gram is mostly grown as rainfed crop. However, where irrigation facilities is required. No irrigation is should be given at flowering time of gram crop.
UP is a leading mustard production state of India. It is the second largest producer of mustard in India after Rajasthan. Gonda, Bahraich, Mirzapur, Saharanpur, Sonbhadra, Kanpur, Sitapur, Etah, Meerut, Faizabad, Etawah, Sultanpur, Mathura, Aligarh and Bulandshahr are the main districts where mustard is grown. It requires the temperature between 10°C to 25°C. Medium to deep soils with good drainage is best available for mustard cultivation.
Kharif crops are usually sown at the beginning of the first rains during the advent of the south-west monsoon season (June), and they are harvested at the end of monsoon season (October–November).There are 14 kharif crops which are found in India. Rice, maize, jute, sugarcane, arhar, bajra and cotton are some of the major Kharif crops in India.
Uttar Pradesh is the second largest rice producing state with almost 5.86 million hectare land under rice cultivation producing about 12.5 million tonnes of rice. Bijnaur, Khushinagar, Pilibheet, Chandauli, Bagpat, Ambedkar, and Varanasi are highest rice producing districts of Uttar Pradesh. Rice crop needs a hot and humid climate. It is best suited to regions which have high humidity, prolonged sunshine and an assured supply of water. The average temperature required throughout the life period of the crop ranges from 21°C to 37°C. Maximum temperature which the crop can tolerate is 40°C to 42°C. Soils with good water retention capacity with high amount of clay and organic matter are ideal for rice cultivation. Clay or clay loams are most suited for rice cultivation. Such soils are capable of holding water for long and sustain crop.
Uttar Pradesh produces amount of 6.1% maize in India. It ranks third in the production of maize. It is grown in the districts in the districts like Meerut, Ghaziabad, Bulandshahr, Farrukhabad, Gonda, Jaunpur, Etah, Firozabad and Manipuri. Manipuri is the largest producer of maize in the state. It is a rainy crop. The maize crop requires sufficient moisture in the soil since its inception. Temperature of 18°C to 23°C for deposition and 28°C temperature is considered good for growth and development. Alternate spells of rains and sunny weather are ideal for maize. It is a Kharif Crop but in some states like Bihar, it is grown in the Rabi season also. It grows well in alluvial and red soils with good drainage. It can also be grown in mountainous soils.
Uttar Pradesh has the largest area almost 50 per cent of the cane area in the country. It is the highest rice producing state in India. These districts are Varanasi, Siddharthnagar, Shrawasti, Azamgarh, Jaunpur, Kaushambi, Mirzapur and Allahabad. These districts produce sugarcane and have the potentials of development of the sugar industry. Shamli district in west UP region has topped the chart by producing over 1,004 quintal per hectare of sugarcane followed by Muzaffarnagar which recorded 923.20 quintal per hectare. Sugarcane is a tropical crop. It requires a warm and humid climate for growth while cool, sunny and dry climate for ripening. The temperature requirement is 20°C to 26°C. Germination does not take place when temperature goes below 7°C. A well-drained loamy soil with neutral soil reaction (pH 6.5 to 7.5) and adequate nutrients and without soil compaction is considered an ideal soil for sugarcane production. The soil should be loose and friable with a minimum depth of 45 cm without any harmful salts and nutrient deficiency.
Uttar Pradesh is the second largest bajra producing state in India. Agra, Aligarh, Moradabad, Mathura, Budaun, Firozabad, Etawah, Manipuri, Kanpur, Ghaziabad, Farrukhabad and Pratapgarh are the districts which are producing bajra. Aligarh is the largest producer of bajra in the state. Bajra grows well in dry and warm climate conditions. It is drought tolerant crop and requires low annual rainfall ranging between 40 cm to 60 cm. Ideal temperature for bajra cultivation is between 20°C to 30°C. Bajra grows well on sandy soil and shallow black soil.
Zaid crops are summer season crops. They grow for a short time period between kharif and rabi crops, mainly from March to June. Cucumber, pumpkin, bitter gourd, and watermelon are some examples of zaid crops.
Uttar Pradesh is second largest producer of pumpkin in in India. Pumpkin needs minimum temperature of 18℃ at the early stage of its growth. Ideal temperature range is 25 to 28°C for its cultivation. It adopts a wide range of rainfall conditions and it also tolerates low temperatures. Pumpkins need lots of sun, rich soil, plenty of plant food and water.
Before implementing any technology, firstly we should be familiar with the problems, and requirements.
By knowing climate requirements like temperature, rainfall or water, soil, etc. We can use drone technology as per the requirement for more production. So that farmers can take benefits of it.